Changing Trends in the Pattern of Eye Diseases in Persons Living with Diabetes Mellitus

Data from a Tertiary Health Facility, South East - Nigeria

Authors

  • Marcellinus Okafor Nkpozi Department of Surgery, Ophthalmology Unit, Abia State University Teaching Hospital, ABSUTH, Aba, Nigeria
  • Nkpozi MO Department of Internal Medicine, Abia State University Teaching Hospital, ABSUTH, Aba, Nigeria
  • Eweputanna LI Department of Radiology, ABSUTH, Aba, Nigeria
  • Mba IO Department of Internal Medicine, Bingham University/Bingham University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Plateau State

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.48112/acmr.v4i2.50

Keywords:

Burden, Diabetes Eye Diseases, Patterns, Southeast Nigeria, Trends

Abstract

Abstract Views: 56

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with eye diseases such that the diabetic patients may even first present to the ophthalmologist where the diagnosis of DM is made. The trends in the pattern of eye diseases in diabetic patients are becoming worrisome and most of the complications in the eyes may progress to visual loss and blindness. The burden and pattern of eye diseases in persons living with diabetes in the city of Aba, South East Nigeria had to, therefore, be revisited. This was a 2-year prospective study in which all diabetic patients referred to or presenting with eye complaints at the Ophthalmology clinic of Abia State University Teaching Hospital (ABSUTH) Aba, Nigeria between June 2021 and December 2022 were consecutively recruited into the study. History and examination of the patients were done by optometrists and ophthalmologists. Relevant data were obtained and analyzed using SPSS version 23.0 and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Subjects recruited into the study were 134; 65 (48.5%) males and 69 (51.5%) females. Diabetic ocular complications were more in the middle aged and these included heterochromia (58%) in the right eye, cataract (53.7%) in the left eye, glaucoma (44.8%) and diabetic retinopathy (10.4%). Iris lesions (heterochromia and rubeosis iris) were predominant in 115 (85.8%) of the right eye while cataract was predominantly noted in 75 (55.9%) of the left eye. About a third of the subjects were blind and the posterior segments of both eyes were rarely affected by diabetes mellitus. Ocular complications of DM constitute a major threat to vision in persons living with diabetes in the city of Aba, Southeast Nigeria. Early diagnosis, prompt treatment and preventive measures should be emphasized involving all the stakeholders.

References

Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ. New diagnostic criteria and classification of diabetes--again? Diabet Med. 1998;15(7):535-6.

Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet Med. 1998;15(7):539-53.

Rodríguez IA, Serafini M, Alves IA, Lang KL, Silva FRMB, Aragón DM. Natural Products as Outstanding Alternatives in Diabetes Mellitus: A Patent Review. Pharmaceutics. 2022;15(1):85. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics15010085.

King H, Aubert RE, Herman WH. Global burden of diabetes, 1995-2025: prevalence, numerical estimates, and projections. Diabetes Care. 1998;21(9):1414-31. doi: 10.2337/diacare.21.9.1414.

Helms RB. Implications of population growth on prevalence of diabetes. A look at the future. Diabetes Care. 1992;15 Suppl 1:6-9. doi: 10.2337/diacare.15.1.s6.

Wachtel P. Household saving and demographic change, 1950-2050. Res Popul Econ. 1984;5:217-33.

Uloko AE, Ofoegbu EN, Chinenye S, Fasanmade OA, Fasanmade AA, Ogbera AO, et al. Profile of Nigerians with diabetes mellitus - Diabcare Nigeria study group (2008): Results of a multicenter study. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012;16(4):558-64. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.98011.

Kumar S, Mittal A, Babu D, Mittal A. Herbal Medicines for Diabetes Management and its Secondary Complications. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2021;17(4):437-456. doi: 10.2174/1573399816666201103143225.

Resnikoff S, Keys TU. Future trends in global blindness. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2012;60(5):387-95. doi: 10.4103/0301-4738.100532.

Cheung N, Mitchell P, Wong TY. Diabetic retinopathy. Lancet. 2010;376(9735):124-36. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)62124-3.

Rolfe M. Diabetic eye disease in Central Africa. Diabetologia. 1988;31(2):88-92. doi: 10.1007/BF00395553.

Khandekar RB, Tirumurthy S, Al-Harby S, Moorthy NS, Amir I. Diabetic retinopathy and ocular co-morbidities among persons with diabetes at Sumail Hospital of Oman. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2009;11(10):675-9. doi: 10.1089/dia.2009.0032.

Magulike NO, Chuka-Okosa CM, Oli JM. Diabetic eye disease in Enugu South Eastern Nigeria – A preliminary Report. Nigerian J Ophthalmol. 2003;11(1):30–33.

Abraham EG, Umoh V. Occular health status of diabetes mellitus patients in Uyo, South- South Nigeria. J Dent Med Sci. 2013; 9(2): 24 – 28.

Nkpozi MO, Adukwu BU, Ugwu ET. Pattern of diabetic eye diseases in a tertiary health facility, southeast. Nigeria. J Biomed Res. Clin Pract. 2020; 3(1): 230-234.

Genz J, Scheer M, Trautner C, Zöllner I, Giani G, Icks A. Reduced incidence of blindness in relation to diabetes mellitus in southern Germany? Diabet Med. 2010;27(10):1138-43. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03081.x.

Icks A, Trautner C, Haastert B, Berger M, Giani G. Blindness due to diabetes: population-based age- and sex-specific incidence rates. Diabet Med. 1997;14(7):571-5. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9136(199707)14:7<571::AID-DIA384>3.0.CO;2-Y.

Claessen H, Kvitkina T, Narres M, Trautner C, Bertram B, Icks A. Markedly decreasing incidence of cause-specific blindness in Saxony (Eastern Germany). Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2021;259(5):1089-1101. doi: 10.1007/s00417-020-04885-4.

Lawan A, Mohammed TB. Pattern of diabetic retinopathy in Kano, Nigeria. Ann Afr Med. 2012;11(2):75-9. doi: 10.4103/1596-3519.93528.

Ajayi IA, Raimi TH, Omotoye OJ, Ajite KO. Ocular findings in a diabetic Retinopathy Screening clinic in South west Nigeria. Int J Med Med Sci. 2011;4(3):023-027.

Ogbera AO, Ekpebegh C. Diabetes mellitus in Nigeria: The past, present and future. World J Diabetes. 2014;5(6):905-11. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v5.i6.905.

Voleti VB, Hubschman JP. Age-related eye disease. Maturitas. 2013;75(1):29-33. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2013.01.018.

Published

2023-06-30

How to Cite

Nkpozi, M. O., MO, N., LI, E., & IO, M. (2023). Changing Trends in the Pattern of Eye Diseases in Persons Living with Diabetes Mellitus: Data from a Tertiary Health Facility, South East - Nigeria. Advances in Clinical Medical Research, 4(2), 11–15. https://doi.org/10.48112/acmr.v4i2.50